Headache & Migraine Triggers
Headaches and Food
Not only can specific foods trigger a headache, but dietary habits can also play a role. Fasting, dehydration, or skipping meals may cause headaches in some people.
Some of the most common foods, beverages, and additives associated with headaches include:
For people who take monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) medications, avoidance of all foods containing tyramine — including aged cheeses, red wine, alcoholic beverages, and some processed meats — is essential.
Tyramine is found naturally in some foods. It is formed from the breakdown of protein as foods age. Generally, the longer a high-protein food ages, the greater the tyramine content. The amount of tyramine in cheeses differs greatly due to the variations in processing, fermenting, aging, degradation, or even bacterial contamination.
The following types of cheeses have been reported to be high in tyramine:
Blood flow to your brain increases when you drink alcohol. Some scientists blame the headache on impurities in alcohol or by-products produced as your body metabolizes alcohol. Sulfites used as a preservative may also cause headache. The higher the sulfite content, the greater the chance of developing migraine. Alcohol also causes dehydration, which may also cause migraines. Red wine, beer, whiskey, Scotch, and champagne are the most commonly identified headache triggers.
Food preservatives (or additives) contained in certain foods can trigger headaches. Nitrates and nitrites are additives in:
|Hot dogs||Lunch meats and deli-style meats|
|Sausage||Other cured or processed meats|
|Bacon||Some heart medicines|
These substances dilate blood vessels, causing headaches in some people.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food additive/flavor enhancer that may trigger headaches. MSG is one of the active ingredients in soy sauce, meat tenderizer, Asian foods, and a variety of packaged foods. Be aware of labeling such as “hydrolyzed fat” or “hydrolyzed protein” or “all natural preservatives” since these are terms used synonymously with MSG.
Most symptoms begin within 20 to 25 minutes after consuming MSG. They include:
|Pressure in the chest||Dizziness|
|Tightening and pressure in the face||Headache pain across the front or sides of the head|
|Burning sensation in the chest, neck, or shoulders||Abdominal discomfort|
This condition is caused by eating cold ice cream quickly or gulping ice drinks. It’s more likely to occur if you are over-heated from exercise or hot temperatures. Pain, which is felt in the forehead, peaks 25 to 60 seconds and lasts from several seconds to one or two minutes. About one-third of people experience “head rushes”, or “ice cream headache” and more than 90 percent of migraine sufferers report an increased sensitivity to ice cream.
These foods have been identified as triggers by some headache sufferers:
|Peanuts, peanut butter, other nuts and seeds||Bread, crackers, and desserts containing cheese|
|Pizza or other tomato-based products||Most beans including lima, Italian, pole, broad, fava, navy, pinto, snow peas, garbanzo, lentils, and dried beans and peas|
|Potato chip products||Onions|
|Chicken livers and other organ meats, pate||Avocados|
|Smoked or dried fish||Certain fresh fruits including ripe bananas, citrus fruits, papaya, red plums, raspberries, kiwi, pineapple|
|Pickled foods (pickles, olives, sauerkraut)||Dried fruits (figs, raisins, dates)|
|Sourdough bread, fresh baked yeast goods (donuts, cakes, homemade breads, and rolls)||Soups made from meat extracts or bouillon (not homemade broth)|
|Brewer’s yeast found in natural supplements||Cultured dairy products, sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt|
Found in chocolate and cocoa; beverages such as coffee, tea, and colas; also found in certain medications. Small amounts may improve a migraine, but limit the amount to less than 300 mg/day or caffeine can produce a headache.
Aspartame and other artificial sweeteners are linked to headaches in some people.
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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Headache: Hope through Research. Accessed 4/14/2011.
Panconesi A. American Headache Society. Alcohol and Migraine. Accessed 4/14/2011.
National Headache Foundation. Diet can influence headache. Accessed 4/14/2011.